Biological Network Embedding

Embedding proteins by preserving their interactions.

Introduction

Network embedding aims to learn lower dimensional representations of nodes in the network, that enables to use off-the-shelf machine learning algorithms for downstream tasks such as Node classification, Link Prediction, Clustering and Visualization.

In biology, various components of a living cell within an organism interacts with each other to carry the basic functionalities. For example, protein interacts with other proteins to carry biological processes. Proteins and their interactions can be modeled as a network, where protein are nodes and interactions are edges connecting corresponding proteins.

In this post, We will first embed the each proteins in the yeast protein-protein interaction networks extracted from BioGRID database. You can access the preprocessed data from GitHub. The idea of embedding proteins is to make the interacting proteins closer in the embedding space. Our task on hand is to predict the missing interactions between proteins.

Exploring the network properties

# Loading libraries
import networkx as nx
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
import numpy as np

# Libraries for embedding mode
from argument_parser import argument_parser
from utils import table_printer
from models import Trainer
edgelist_file = "data/yeast/edgelist_biogrid.txt"
edgelist = pd.read_csv(edgelist_file, sep=' ', header=None)
graph = nx.from_edgelist(edgelist.values[:, :2].tolist())
print("Number of nodes in the network is {}.".format(graph.order()))
print("Number of interactions in the network is {}.".format(graph.size() * 2))
Number of nodes in the network is 5638.
Number of interactions in the network is 977472.

Degree distribution of the network

plt.figure(figsize=(8, 5), dpi=300)
degrees = np.asarray([degree for node, degree in graph.degree()])
sns.distplot(degrees, bins= 100, kde=False)
plt.xlabel('Degree')
plt.ylabel('Number of nodes') 
plt.show()

png

print("Maximum degree: ", degrees.max())
print("Minimum degree: ", degrees.min())
Maximum degree:  2640
Minimum degree:  1

Embedding yeast network

Let’s look at the value of different parameters that controls the performance of our embedding model.

args = argument_parser()
table_printer(args)
+----------------+----------------------+
|   Parameter    |        Value         |
+================+======================+
| Batch size     | 256                  |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Data folder    | ./data/              |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Dataset        | yeast                |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Dropout        | 0.200                |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Early stopping | 10                   |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Edgelist file  | edgelist_biogrid.txt |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Emb dim        | 128                  |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Epochs         | 20                   |
+----------------+----------------------+
| L2 penalty     | 0.000                |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Latent size    | 128                  |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Lr             | 0.001                |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Normalize      | 1                    |
+----------------+----------------------+
| Seed           | 42                   |
+----------------+----------------------+

Edgelist file are placed inside “data/yeast/”. Above table shows the name of the file inside that folder.

I have created a Trainer module that helps to load data, define neural network model, train and evaluate it. You can see the code for Trainer in BioNetEmbedding.

trainer = Trainer(args)

Trainer class contains setup_features function to load interactions and randomly splits it into training, validation and test set (85%:10%:5%).

trainer.setup_features()
### Loading [./data/yeast/edgelist_biogrid.txt]...
Total genes: 5638
Training interactions (positive):    830848
Training interactions (negative):    415424
Validation interactions (positive):  97746
Validation interactions (negative):  97746
Test interactions (positive):        48876
Test interactions (negative):        48876

Function setup_model defines embedding model to learn lower dimensional representations for each protein.

trainer.setup_model()
BioNetEmbedding(
  (net_embedding): Embedding(5638, 128)
  (hidden_layer): Linear(in_features=128, out_features=128, bias=True)
  (layers): ModuleList(
    (0): Embedding(5638, 128)
    (1): Linear(in_features=128, out_features=128, bias=True)
  )
  (sampled_softmax): SampledSoftmax(
    (params): Linear(in_features=128, out_features=5638, bias=True)
  )
  (criterion): CrossEntropyLoss()
)

Given a training pair (A, B), BioNetEmbedding maximizes the probability of interactions between the pair.

Details of model working: 1. Embedding(5368, 128) encodes the one-hot encoded representation of 5368 proteins identifier to a embedded vector of dimension 128. 2. Linear layer then projects the embedded vector to different space $z \in \mathbb{R}^{5638 \times 128}$.

Let’s consider these steps as

$$z = f_{\theta}(x)$$

where $\theta$ represents the trainable weights and biases of the neural network. We further pass these latent representation $z$ through softmax layer that maximizes the proximity score between interacting proteins and minimizes the score for non-interacting proteins.

Softmax layer can be presented as:

$$p(A|B) = \frac{\exp(\hat{z}_{A} \cdot z_{B})}{\sum_i^{5368}\exp(\hat{z}_{i} \cdot z_{B})}$$

where $\hat{z}$ is the weights on the softmax layer.

Computing the denominator of above equation is computationally expensive. So, we adopt the approach of negative sampling which samples the negative interactions, interactions with no evidence of their existence, according to some noise distribution for each interaction. This approach allows us to sample a small subset of genes from the network as negative samples for a gene, considering that the genes on selected subset don’t fall in the neighborhood $N_B$ of the gene. Now, above equation becomes:

$$p(A|B) = \frac{\exp(\hat{z}_{A} \cdot z_{B})}{\sum_i\exp(\hat{z}_{i} \cdot z_{B})}$$

Above objective function enhances the similarity of a gene viwith its neighborhood genes $i \in N_B$ and weakens the similarity with genes not in its neighborhood genes $i \notin N_B$. It is inappropriate to assume that the two genes in the network are not related if they are not connected. It may be the case that there is not enough experimental evidence to support that they are related yet. Thus, forcing the dissimilarity of a gene with all other genes, not in its neighborhood $N_B$ seems to be inappropriate.

After training the model, we predict the probability of interactions between protein A and B by taking the dot product between the embeddings of protein A and B and squeezing it through sigmoid function.

$$ \text{probability} =\sigma(z_{A} \cdot z_{B})$$

Training the model

Processing data for training

We need to convert the numpy arrays of our data to tensors so that we can train our model.

trainer.setup_training_data()

Now, we can train our model with the training data and monitor its performance on validation data.

trainer.fit()
Epoch:   1, Training Loss: 1.685, Validation AUC: 0.8501 Validation PR: 0.8652 *
Epoch:   2, Training Loss: 1.567, Validation AUC: 0.8899 Validation PR: 0.9049 *
Epoch:   3, Training Loss: 1.506, Validation AUC: 0.9071 Validation PR: 0.9210 *
Epoch:   4, Training Loss: 1.460, Validation AUC: 0.9142 Validation PR: 0.9274 *
Epoch:   5, Training Loss: 1.422, Validation AUC: 0.9191 Validation PR: 0.9321 *
Epoch:   6, Training Loss: 1.413, Validation AUC: 0.9214 Validation PR: 0.9342 *
Epoch:   7, Training Loss: 1.389, Validation AUC: 0.9235 Validation PR: 0.9359 *
Epoch:   8, Training Loss: 1.383, Validation AUC: 0.9245 Validation PR: 0.9374 *
Epoch:   9, Training Loss: 1.373, Validation AUC: 0.9242 Validation PR: 0.9373 
Epoch:  10, Training Loss: 1.369, Validation AUC: 0.9224 Validation PR: 0.9361 
Early stopping
Total Training time:  166.11041498184204

Visualization of training loss and validation performance

fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(nrows=1, ncols=2, dpi=300, figsize=(8, 3))
ax1.plot(range(len(trainer.train_losses)), trainer.train_losses)
ax1.set_ylabel("Training Loss")
ax1.set_xlabel("Epochs")

ax2.plot(range(len(trainer.valid_auc)), trainer.valid_auc, marker="o", label="AUC")
ax2.plot(range(len(trainer.valid_pr)), trainer.valid_pr, marker="o", label="PR")

ax2.set_ylabel("Validation performance")
ax2.set_xlabel("Epochs")
plt.tight_layout()
plt.legend()
plt.show()

png

Evaluation of the model on test data

trainer.evaluate()
Test ROC Score: 0.943, Test AP score: 0.953
Avatar
Kishan KC
PhD Student

PhD Student in Machine Learning and Network Biology

Related